Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Cow Mastitis among Small Scale Farmers and Dairy Farms in Western Tigray, Northwest Ethiopia

Leul Berhe, Zinabu Nigus Belay, Gebresilase Gebrekidan

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i430088

A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2017 to June 2018 to assess awareness status and management practice common among dairy cows owners and to determine the prevalence of bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in four districts and nine kebelles of Western Zone of Tigray Regional State, North West Ethiopia. In this study, out of the 355 dairy cows and 1314 functional quarters examined, 99(27.89%) cows and 142(10.81%) quarters were found positive for sub-clinical mastitis on California Mastitis Test (CMT). In addition, from the 355 dairy cows and 1420 quarters examined, 88(24.79%) and 108(7.61%) cows and teats respectively, were found to be blind. From the total risk factors considered, statistically significant association (P<0.05) was found in different breed, udder type and parity. Semi structured questionnaires surveys were distributed to 87(95.60%) males and 4(4.40%) females. According to the survey result, 76(83.52%) of the dairy cow owners housed their cows in open area with muddy or soily floor type. From the total 91 interviewed 32(35.16%) regularly dispose dung and cleaning of house. During the survey, udder management before and after milking was assessed. According to the response of 89(97.80%) milkers washed their hands prior to milking and 2(2.20%) did not. From the total 91interviewed individuals, 13(14.29%) milkers disinfect their hands before proceeding to milk the next cow while 78(85.71%) did not. During the survey, sequence of milking cows was assessed. Based on the response of respondents, 85(93.41%) of the milker did not follow sequence of milking and the rest 6(6.59%) milkers emphasized the need to follow the order of milking. The result of the present study indicated a relatively high prevalence of subclinical mastitis and with higher incidence of one or more nonfunctional teat which impose higher economic loss to the dairy owners. Lack of strategic control measures and improper attention to the health of the mammary glands contribute the higher infestation rate. Better management practices in milking and adequate housing with proper sanitation should be provided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Functions of Pedotransference to Determine Microporosity for a Soil (Typic Hapludox) under Two Conditions of Use in the Orinoco Region Colombia

Edwin Esteban Reyes Alvarez, Sergio David Parra-González, Jeisson Rodriguez-Valenzuela

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i430089

Microporosity is a property that influences not only on fluid dynamics but also on the flow of chemical substances and plant growth. Likewise, it is known that microporosity is difficult to be determined due to the broad variety of methods that implies using of equipment and assemblage, that in certain cases might be onerous. On the other hand, functions of pedotransference is a fundamental tool to estimate indirectly and affordable the soil properties which have been complex and expensive to be measured, in function to others which are less complex and have a lower cost. Therefore, the purpose of this study was obtaining functions of pedotransference (FP) of continuous type, using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to assess microporosity of a typic hapludox soil. This research was carried out in Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia using a data set of 12 physical and chemical properties of two locations submitted to different uses (a plot with agroforestry system and a plot with previous biennial crops under conventional management). Both plots in the study area were sampled in a matrix of 17 X 17 m resulting in 24 samples per area. ANOVA and the SNK tests indicated that the use and the soil management modify significantly properties such as moist retention capacity, clay content, phosphorous content and pH. Through the MLR method was obtained FP to stimulate microporosity with R² of 0,49 and 0,41 using field capacity and the electrical connectivity saturated as regressors variables. In addition, other functions that determine field capacity and microporosity in function of clay showed significance and the high power of prediction R² de 0,65. In conclusion, hydraulic parameters from assessed soils can be determined by functions of pedotransference with the MLR method, which proves the great potential of this tool as support for decision making in the field of soil sciences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Questionnaire Survey on Ectoparasites Challenges and Impact of Ectoparasites Control Campaign Conducted in Welkait, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

Leul Berhe, Berihun Afera, Etsay Kebede, Habtom Kiros Bitsue

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i430090

A cross-sectional survey study was conducted from November 2015 to May 2016 in Welkait district Western part of Tigray Region. A total of 120 small ruminant owners were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. The survey was focus on husbandry system, awareness status of animal owners on ectoparasites and their effect, treatment approaches and an assessment on the implementation and impact of ectoparasites control intervention practiced in the study district. The current assessment showed that the production system practiced in the study area is mixed production with (31.67%) owners managed their sheep and goats independently in their own house whereas (62.5%) had been kept their sheep and goats together with other domestic animal including dog and cat. With regard to the knowledge of ectoparasites species, (100%) of the respondents clearly indicate that they knew one or more ectoparasites that affect sheep and goats. During the survey, the veterinary service delivery and the free charge governmental ectoparasites control campaign conducted was assessed. According to the response of (89.61%) respondents reported that modern veterinary service delivery had in their nearby but; the rest did not have any service. Out of 120 interviewed, (98.33%) respondents knew the free charge governmental ectoparates control program conducted from 2012 to 2015. From the total 120 intertwined individual, (94.17%) small ruminant owners sprayed/dipped their sheep and goats one or more times at different interval using acaricides (diazinone 60%). From (94.17%) respondents which had sprayed/dipped their sheep and goats, (88.49%) were used knapsack spraying option whereas (4.42%) disinfected by dipping. During the survey the interval of treatment applied was assessed. According the response (70.00%) interviewed individuals, they were treated their sheep and goats at two week interval whereas (25.00%) and (5.00%) of the respondent provided and treated their small ruminants at three and four week interval respectively. As indicated by (96.5%) respondents, there was re-infestation of ectoparasites after the control campaign. Based on these findings, designing and implementing proper annual chemical control, develop clear animal movement policy and strict quarantine, creating awareness and better management practice should be implemented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biometry and Pre-germinating Manilkara zapota L. Seed Treatments

Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, Marcus Gabriel de Cavalho Ramos, Wesley Oliveira de Assis, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Alberício Pereira de Andrade, Larice Bruna Ferreira Soares, Jaqueline Figueredo de Oliveira Costa, Priscila Cordeiro Souto, Maria Inajal Rodrigues da Silva das Neve, Dougllas Ferreira da Rocha

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i430091

Manilkara zapota L., popularly known as sapoti, has commercial relevance both for fruits, with high prices in the regional markets, and for its wood. Thus, the propagation of this species can be done by seed, however, the germination is slow and uneven. The objective of this work was to study the biometry of the seeds and to evaluate pre-germinative treatments to facilitate the propagation of sapoti. The fruits were from the municipality of Brejão-PE and length, width and thickness were determined in millimeters of each seed and submitted to different pre-germination treatments. The seeds were exposed to the following evaluations: biometry, dormancy overrun, germination tests, germination speed index, root length and aerial part of the seedlings and dry mass of the root and shoot of the seedlings. They have variability regarding their biometry and do not require the adoption of treatments for the breakdown of dormancy, which enables and accelerates the production of seedlings. The treatments aimed at overcoming dormancy of sapoti were not efficient to accelerate the germination of the seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Climatic Variables on Whole-plant Water use of Cocoa under Limited Soil Moisture Condition

Femi S. Omotayo, Philip G. Oguntunde, Ayorinde A. Olufayo

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i430092

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a cash crop that is cultivated in many tropical regions of the world and is highly productive under favourable climatic conditions. Cocao, being originally an under storey tree of rainforests in tropical America, is traditionally cultivated below the canopy of shade trees. This study is carried out to establish the influence of climatic variables on whole-plant water use of cocoa under limited soil moisture conditions. An experimental plot was made in an even – aged 54 years old cocoa plantation which was demarcated while Water use measurement carried out for 20 consecutive days at the center of the cocoa plantation field at the Federal University of Technology, Akure using the temperature difference method (Sap flow meter). The results of evaporation rate and water consumed by crops led to decrease in soil water in the monitored root zone from 0.049 to 0.015 m3 m-3. Solar radiation reached a high value of 1002.37 Wm-2, with day time average of 238.02 Wm-2. Temperature ranges between 16.41 and 34.19ºC with a daily average of about 24.39ºC. Relative humidity varied from 98.60% to less than 32.37% with daily mean of around 74.90%. Vapour pressure varied from 0.01 to 2.87 kpa. The day time wind speeds rarely exceed 5.2 ms-1 while the daily averages were generally around 1.09 ms-1.  The results also show that transpiration, (Ec) is mostly influenced by solar radiation with a correlation coefficient of 0.71 while other variable like temperature, Vapour pressure deficit, and Relative humidity has correlation coefficient of 0.62, 0.50 and 0.58 respectively. The total amount of rainfall during the experiment was 38.9 mm. This shows that solar radiation has greater influence on the transpiration of the cocoa plant than other variables in the study area.